Review: Instructional Design

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Definitions of Instructional Design

  • The instructional design process consists of determining the needs of the learners, defining the end goals and objectives of instruction, designing and planning assessment tasks, and designing teaching and learning activities to ensure the quality of instruction [1].
  • Instructional design is a technology for the development of learning experiences and environments which promote the acquisition of specific knowledge and skill by students [2].
  • Instructional Design is a system of procedures for developing education and training curricula in a consistent and reliable fashion. [3]


Models, categories and types of Instructional Design

  • There are numerous instructional design models. These are commonly accepted design models:
    • ADDIE
    • Dick and Carey
    • Assure
    • Backward Design (Understanding By Design)
    • Kemp Design Model
    • The Kirkpatrick Model
    • Gerlach-Ely Model
    • TPACK


Common Characteristic and element of Instructional Design

  • According to Branch and Merrill (2002), there are several characteristics that should be present in all instructional design models:
    • Instructional design is learner centered: Learner and his/her performance are the focal point.
    • Instructional design is goal oriented: Well defined goals are essential.
    • Instructional design focusses on real world performance. Help learners perform the behaviors that will be expected of them in the real world.
    • Instructional design focusses on outcomes that can be measured in a reliable and valid way. Creating valid and reliable measurement instrument is essential.
    • Instructional design is empirical. Data are the heart of the process.
    • Instructional design typically is a team effort. This process usually involves team work.


Instructional Design consideration

  • Why should my learners take this learning – what’s in it for them?
    • Instructional design is goal oriented
  • What activities can I include that give my learners the chance to practice what they are learning?
    • Instructional design is focusses on real world performance.
    • Instructional design is typically is a team effort
  • Can I include real life examples and scenarios to reinforce the key concepts?
    • Instructional design is focusses on real world performance.
    • Instructional design is focusses on outcomes that can be measured
  • How can I test my learners understanding of the content?
    • Instructional design is focusses on outcomes that can be measured.
  • How can I reward the learners for their achievements?
    • Instructional design is focusses on outcomes that can be measured
    • Instructional design is empirical



  • ID have numbers of models and characteristics, that can be used and follow, or simply design your own ID model based on the ID elements and how it work your purpose.
  • Each ID must consider the elements of ID and adapt with the environment or platform used. Be aware on what the available learning environment/platform can or can not do.
  • ID for an online learning might as well deferent compare to traditional face to face learning, but share the same purpose and characteristic.



[1] Educational Technology.
[2] Merrill, M. D.; Drake, L.; Lacy, M. J.; Pratt, J. (1996). “Reclaiming instructional design” (PDF). Educational Technology. 36 (5): 5–7.
[3] Branch, R. M., & Merrill, M. D. (2012). Characteristics of instructional design models. Trends and issues in instructional design and technology, 8-16.
[4] Instructional Design Models and Theories. December 9, 2015 by Serhat Kurt.
[5] Branch, R. M., & Kopcha, T. J. (2014). Instructional design models. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 77-87). Springer New York.
[6] 5 instructional design considerations to shape your eLearning project. Justine Swain | 04/21/2016.